Göran Gustafssonföreläsningarna i matematik 2017 ges av Avi Widgerson, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, 19-22 maj. För detaljer se nedan.
Göran Gustafssonföreläsningen 2017 i medicin hålls av Professor Joseph E. Le Doux, Center for Neural Science , New York University, New York, USA. i Grönwallsalen, Akademiska sjukhuset, 2 november kl 16:00. Föredragstitel: Anxiety.
19 maj, Fredag, 13:15 – 14:15 Avi Wigderson: Randomness
Is the universe inherently deterministic or probabilistic? Perhaps more importantly – can we tell the difference between the two? Humanity has pondered the meaning and utility of randomness for millennia. There is a remarkable variety of ways in which we utilize perfect coin tosses to our advantage: in statistics, cryptography, game theory, algorithms, gambling… Indeed, randomness seems indispensable! Which of these applications survive if the universe had no randomness in it at all? Which of them survive if only poor quality randomness is available, e.g. that arises from ”unpredictable” phenomena like the weather or the stock market? A computational theory of randomness, developed in the past three decades, reveals (perhaps counter-intuitively) that very little is lost in such deterministic or weakly random worlds. In the talk I’ll discuss the main ideas and results of this theory, give a mathematical definition of pseudorandomness, and explain how both the Riemann Hypothesis and the P vs. NP question (among others) naturally fit in this framework. The talk is aimed at a general scientific audience.
22 maj, Måndag, 13:15 – 14:15 Avi Wigderson: Operator scaling – theory and applications
In this talk I will explain the ”singularity problem” for symbolic matrices over non commuting variables, and describe its myriad origins and incarnations in commutative and non-commutative algebra, computational complexity, optimization, quantum information theory, Brascamp-Lieb inequalities and other areas. I will describe the ”Operator scaling” algorithm, which efficiently solves all these related problems, and how its analysis combines ideas from these areas. This algorithm efficiently solves a large family of non-convex optimization problems, and will hopefully find other applications. I will elaborate on algebraic and analytic aspects of this work (respectively) in the two following lectures on May 23 and May 24. Based on joint works with Ankit Garg, Leonid Gurvits and Rafael Olivera.
23 maj, Tisdag, 13:15 – 14:15 Avi Wigderson: Commutative and non-commutative rank of symbolic matrices
Our object of study are matrices whose entries are linear forms in a given set of variables. We will be interested in their rank, both when variables commute and when they do not. I will discuss the importance of understanding these objects in arithmetic complexity, algebra and combinatorics, and present some structural and computational results and open problems about them. No prior knowledge from previous talks will be assumed. Based on joint works with Ankit Garg, Leonid Gurvits and Rafael Olivera.